Water is the liquid substance, transparent, odorless, colorless and tasteless, essential for the development of life on Earth, whose molecular composition is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, manifests in its chemical formula H2O. The word comes from the Latin aqua , which means, effectively, ‘water’.
As such, water is the most abundant substance on the planet, to the point that it occupies more than 70% of the Earth’s surface in its three states: liquid, solid and gaseous. From it clouds, rain, snow, rivers, lakes and seas are formed; and from it, in addition, all living organisms and many natural compounds are constituted.
Also known as water are liquids obtained by infusion, dissolution or emulsion of flowers, plants, fruits or other substances, to be consumed as soft drinks (fresh water, flower water of Jamaica), medicines (orange blossom water) or perfumes (water of cologne, rose water).
In Architecture, water designates the slope of a roof.
For its part, the cosmogonies of the West contemplate water as one of the four elements, along with the earth, fire and air.
As holy water is known that of certain religious rites, associated mainly with the Christian tradition, which has been blessed by a priest, and whose use is intended, more than anything, for matters related to the liturgy, to cross himself, sprinkle, baptize, as well as to give blessings in general.
Hard water and soft water
The hard water is one made up of a high level of minerals in solution, particularly magnesium salts and calcium as well as calcium carbonate and bicarbonate. Among some of its properties is the impossibility of foaming when used with soap solution. In theory, a water can be considered hard once it has a content greater than 120 milligrams of CaCO3 per liter, unlike soft water, characterized by containing, in solution, minimum amounts of salts.
The distilled water is that which has passed through a purification process by which it is extracted all kinds of particles and microorganisms that are potentially harmful to humans, and which is called distillation process.
It is called fresh water that, unlike seawater or brackish water, is naturally found in liquid form on the earth’s surface, in rivers, lakes or lagoons; under it, as groundwater; or in solid state, such as ice sheets, icebergs or glaciers. What distinguishes fresh water is its low concentration of salts and dissolved solids, and its little or no taste, although it does include waters rich in mineral properties.
The mineral water is that of high mineral content as well as other substances, which are attributed therapeutic properties. As such, it can be obtained naturally in its sources, the so-called springs, or through a production process. Currently, mineral water is a product of commercial value and there are thousands of companies around the world that are dedicated to its bottling and distribution.
The hydrogen peroxide , also referred to as p eróxido hydrogen, is a slightly more viscous, bitter taste, chemical like water, colorless whose formula is H2O2. It has multiple applications in industry, hairdressing and art, as well as in Medicine, for the disinfection of wounds, due to its healing properties.
The drinking water is one that is suitable for human consumption, because it poses no health risk. Access to drinking water is one of the most important problems worldwide, as dozens of countries have a large part of their population in extreme poverty and without adequate access to the vital liquid, while other nations, which have implemented a series Responsible policies regarding the issue of water, its control and treatment, have succeeded in guaranteeing its citizens a good measure of their access to drinking water.
The wastewater (also known as sewage, black, fecal or sewage) are those that are contaminated by various types of wastes such as human excrescences, organic slights, dirt and trash in general, from homes, towns and industry . These types of waters, generally, were already used in their use and are not immediately reusable. In this sense, they need to be subjected to an appropriate treatment to be able to be used again. Proper control and treatment of wastewater is essential to keep pollution levels to a minimum.
The brackish water is that the proportion of dissolved salts is greater than that of freshwater, but lower than that of the sea, in a range of between 500 milligrams and 30 grams of salt per liter. In this sense, its salt content is higher than that recommended for human consumption, for agriculture or for industrial uses. Usually, we can find it in meeting areas of river and marine waters, such as river estuaries.
As groundwater that which lies beneath the land surface, underground, housed in aquifers it is designated. As such, it can occupy pores or cracks of certain types of soils or rocks that absorb it like a sponge, or it can be found through galleries or underground cavities. It is a fundamental source of freshwater supplies .