Boron is a chemical element whose chemical symbol is represented by the letter B. It is not found naturally in nature, being extracted in the form of borax (sodium tetraborate or sodium borate), ulexite (double sodium borate and calcium ) and as a colemanite (alteration of borax and ulexite).
Boron reaches the earth’s surface through natural phenomena such as atmospheric precipitation, volcanic activity and sedimentation of the oceans.
Boron was recognized in 1824 as a new chemical element by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, being synthesized with 50% purity in 1808 by Humphry Davy, Gay-Lussac and LJ Thenard.
The largest deposits in the world for the extraction of borax and ulexite, the main minerals for obtaining boron, are found in the Boron Valley in California, the United States and in the Andean salt flats of the highlands in northern Chile, such as the salt flats. from Surire and Ascotán.
Boron is a metalloid that is characterized by its great hardness. It is the chemical element with the highest tensile strength of the chemical elements of the periodic table. Some of the physical properties that characterize boron are: its low density, its high melting point (2,348K) and its great tensile strength.
The hardness of boron makes it an excellent abrasive agent, a product that acts on other materials through mechanical stress.
Thanks to its hardness and high tensile strength, boron is used as an industrial mineral to obtain insulating glass fibers, borosilicate glasses such as Pyrex glasses, kitchen utensils enamels, special high-strength steels in the aerospace industry, for the green and brown color of fireworks and as a shield against radiation.
Boron in the periodic table
Boron (B) is the chemical element number 5 of the periodic table, its atomic number being 5. It has an atomic mass of 10,811, its electronegativity is 2.04 or its electronic configuration is [He] 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 .
Boron belongs to the group of metalloids or also known as semimetals along with: silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), polonium (Po), astatine (At ) and tellurium (Te).
In addition, it is grouped within group IIIA of the periodic table, called the Boron group, this element being the one that precedes the list. The chemical elements of this group are 5: boron (B), indium (In) thallium (Tl), aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga).
Boron in the human body
Boron has been identified as an important element in the mineral and bone metabolism of human beings.
In this sense, it helps to compensate for the deficit of calcium, vitamin D and magnesium in the body (mineral metabolism) and stores boron in the bone structure to rebalance bone metabolism.
Some of the foods that have a higher boron content are, for example, flour, plum, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts, dates and honey.
Boron in the plants
Boron has an important function in the foliar nutrition of plants and participates in the synthesis of the cell wall.
Within foliar nutrition, boron participates in the translocation of carbohydrates, a product of photosynthesis, from the leaves to the crown, fruits and flowers of the plant.
In addition, it is an important nutrient in the flowering process, since it increases the number of pollen tubes that penetrate the ovum of flowers, increasing viable ovules. In this way, it improves the flowering and mooring of flowers and fruits.